A large group of elements, with a more or less organized collective behavior.
In nature, insects form swarms. Fish shoals are also swarms. In both cases the formation of the swarm results from reciprocal perception. The swarm is probably the most elemental form of sociosystem and corresponds to some benefits individuals obtain from close proximity in the swarm, as for example relative protection against predators.
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- 3) Epistemology, ontology and semantics
- 4) Human sciences
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To cite this page, please use the following information:
Bertalanffy Center for the Study of Systems Science (2020). Title of the entry. In Charles François (Ed.), International Encyclopedia of Systems and Cybernetics (2). Retrieved from www.systemspedia.org/[full/url]
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