WHOLES (A logic of) 2)3)
In 1941, A. ANGYAL proposed a logic of wholes, as opposed to the logic of relations (but still complementary to it). He emphasized the inadequacy of the traditional logical tools for the study of complex objects, to which he already gave the name of "systems" He wrote, in particular: "A relation requires two, and only two members (relata) between which the relation is established. A complex relation can be analysed into pairs of relata, while the system cannot be thus analysed. A system may involve an unspecified number of members. A system is not a complex relation" (in F.E. EMERY, 1969, p.18).
He added however that there are "complex connections which are reducible to two-term relations on the one hand, and complex connections which cannot be (thus) reduced… on the other hand" and stated further on that "the type of connections in a whole is very different from the connections which exist in an aggregate" (Ibid, p.20).
ANGYAL expressly reserved the term "system" for "holistic organization"
ANGYAL views are reminiscent of RUSSELL and WHITEHEAD's theory of types. It is clear that the whole cannot be reduced to the "element" type, and that its relation to each element is of a different type, i.e. hierarchical (or "vertical ") in opposition to "horizontal"
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Bertalanffy Center for the Study of Systems Science (2020). Title of the entry. In Charles François (Ed.), International Encyclopedia of Systems and Cybernetics (2). Retrieved from www.systemspedia.org/[full/url]
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