I. BLAUBERG et al. also state that the requeriments of the wholeness approach are "only seemingly simple to fulfil. In reality any complex problem must necessarily be decomposed into a set of subproblems each of which requires a special approach and, in particular, has an optimal solution all of its own. The point is, however, that the optimal solution of the problem as a whole is not necessarily equal to the sum of the optimal solutions to its parts."
"… In other words, the entire intricate hierarchy of operations aimed at solving a complex problem must be organized in such a way that the chief and decisive criterion at all levels was a unified evaluation of effectivity, i.e. that the system as a whole and its ultimate effect should always be borne in mind" (1977, p.263).
The wholeness approach implies "the fundamental irreductibility of its properties to the sum of the properties of its elements, and the non-deductibility from the latter of the properties of the whole" (Ibid, p.269).
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Bertalanffy Center for the Study of Systems Science (2020). Title of the entry. In Charles François (Ed.), International Encyclopedia of Systems and Cybernetics (2). Retrieved from www.systemspedia.org/[full/url]
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