W.R. ASHBY has established the following principle "That a whole dynamic system should be in equilibrium at a particular state, it is necessary and sufficient that each part should be in equilibrium at that state, in the conditions given to it by the other parts."
ASHBY comments: "Clearly, at any state of the whole, if a single part is not at equilibrium (even though the remainder are), this part will change, will provide new conditions for the other parts, will thus start them moving again, and will thus prevent that state from being one of equilibrium for the whole. As equilibrium of the whole requires that all the parts be in equilibrium, we can say (metaphorically) that every part has a power of veto over the states of equilibrium of the whole" (1960, p.79).
To take care of this aspect, R.L. ACKOFF proposes what could be called the architectural view: Essentially, no part can be changed (modified, increased, decreased, suppressed) without considering the impact of the change on the other parts and, if needed redesigning the whole (1995, p. 44).
While some changes of the parts may originate in changes of external parameters to the system, in this case this is left outside the picture.
From a new and significant viewpoint, wholes are now frequently considered holographic. This implies that the whole is somehow reflected in every part. J.C. LUGAN offers curious insights in this sense: "Individual actors constitute society, but society, through the socialization process, is in each individual. Moreover, while society is produced by the interactions among its individuals, it retroacts by producing individuals through education and language" (1993, p.112).
In other words society tends to become autopoietic, by way of the scattering of its global characteristics among numerous individuals, just as if being an enormous hologram.
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Bertalanffy Center for the Study of Systems Science (2020). Title of the entry. In Charles François (Ed.), International Encyclopedia of Systems and Cybernetics (2). Retrieved from www.systemspedia.org/[full/url]
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