Mac KAY defines unexpectedness as "the average logarithm of the improbability of a message:
- Σp1logp1" (1969, p.57).
As unexpectedness is a measure of improbability, it is the contrary of high probability, which is closely related to nearly homogeneized systems after a considerable and not compensated production of entropy.
It may thus be considered as a measure of negentropy in systems wherein the production of entropy has been coupled with structuring dissipation to lead them towards the emergence of higher complexity, i.e., heterogeneity.
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Bertalanffy Center for the Study of Systems Science (2020). Title of the entry. In Charles François (Ed.), International Encyclopedia of Systems and Cybernetics (2). Retrieved from www.systemspedia.org/[full/url]
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