"The belief that all human faculties are emergent from the rest of nature and not dependent upon some special operations of a supernatural agency" (J.Z. YOUNG, 1978, p. 296)
YOUNG adds "Hence in ethics the belief that reliable criteria for right actions can be founded on factual observations, including facts about people" (Ibid).
Of course, in the long run, naturalism can be sustained only through experimental confirmation of specific emergent effects. Moreover, the very concept of emergence implies the appearance of more complex and integrating phenomena from so-called "lower" levels to "higher" levels. Accordingly, the study of this mechanism of emergence in itself is also the responsability of the naturalistic approach, unless we would be back to reductionism.
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Bertalanffy Center for the Study of Systems Science (2020). Title of the entry. In Charles François (Ed.), International Encyclopedia of Systems and Cybernetics (2). Retrieved from www.systemspedia.org/[full/url]
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