"The relation of joining the parts so as to involve them with each other" (J. FEIBLEMAN & J.W. FRIEND, 1969, p.433).
This definition does not appear quite satisfactory in the sense given to it by FEIBLEMAN and FRIEND, as it implies an idea of interrelation of synergetic or co-structural type.
This may be seen clearly in the example they give: "The relation of skin, flesh, and seeds in a whole apple is multiplicative rather than additive because these parts are involved with each other in ways other than mere aggregation. (p.33)". The skin does not multiply the seeds, nor conversely.
One could understand that multiplication is an additive mode of elements or parts of the same, or different types, not any more under the guise of simple aggregates, as in composite systems, but as structures. For example, an increase in the number of clerks in an accounting service in a growing business may or may not increase the complexity of the accounting subsystem. But it generally does.
Eventually it could introduce the need for a new control subsystem, if the accounting division becomes too numerous and difficult to manage.
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Bertalanffy Center for the Study of Systems Science (2020). Title of the entry. In Charles François (Ed.), International Encyclopedia of Systems and Cybernetics (2). Retrieved from www.systemspedia.org/[full/url]
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