Any standard structural element that may replace another element of the same type or class in a system or a subsystem, or be added to it.
Modules are generally of finite duration, as for example molecules, cells, snow flakes, or living beings.
According to L. CARLSON-SABELLI and H. SABELLI "The universe is formed by classes of similar entities (modules) at each level of organization (electrons, sodium atoms, starfish, system theorists). This is the principle of uniform structure of nature (MILL) also called the principle of mass production (J. THOMSON). For each class of modules there necessarily is a complementary class: cation and anion; sun and planet; woman and man; teacher and student, etc.)…
"Modules can be exchanged for each other as parts of systems. An entity may readily change the system to which it belongs, but not its class. One module may replace another in a system without affecting its overall function. Modules, even when equivalent to each other within the context of a given interaction, may not be equivalent in relation to other interactions, and may be completely unique (e.g. snow flakes, human beings, books). Systems are formed by modules of many types, and often contain many individuals of each class. Complementary modules interact harmonically, conflictually and co-creatively. Social classes are obvious examples" (1993, p.682).
- 1) General information
- 2) Methodology or model
- 3) Epistemology, ontology and semantics
- 4) Human sciences
- 5) Discipline oriented
To cite this page, please use the following information:
Bertalanffy Center for the Study of Systems Science (2020). Title of the entry. In Charles François (Ed.), International Encyclopedia of Systems and Cybernetics (2). Retrieved from www.systemspedia.org/[full/url]
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