A methodology "used to enable the participant group to develop logical patterns (structures) of relationships among concepts produced by Nominal Group Technique" (J. WARFIELD, 1989, p.2).
The aim of this modeling technique is to limit as much as possible what WARFIELD calls "Underconceptualization" which includes remaining stuck in a too limited conceptual frame; rationalizing so-called "problems" (which are generally "human constructs not subject to observation "; and shrinking design by limiting it to restrictive contexts (p.9-10).
According to WARFIELD: "It is a powerful learning method, because it involves disciplined, detailed, examination of relationships among factors involved in the complex issue; accompanied by discussion and further clarification".
"The patterns produced by the use of this methodology can take any variety of forms. However a very common form of pattern that is produced is called a "problematique". This particular pattern shows how a set of problems all involved in the issue are interrelated to each other in an influence pattern. Specifically, such a pattern shows how a given problem may cause some other problems in the set to become worse. Problematiques typically contain "cycles"; i.e. subsets of problems such that each problem in the subset makes every other problem in the subset worse. Cycles represent (model) escalating situations that may only be susceptible of corrective action by working with all the members of the cycle as a group, rather than working individually and independently with problems, uninformed by their interaction" (1991, p.199).
- 1) General information
- 2) Methodology or model
- 3) Epistemology, ontology and semantics
- 4) Human sciences
- 5) Discipline oriented
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Bertalanffy Center for the Study of Systems Science (2020). Title of the entry. In Charles François (Ed.), International Encyclopedia of Systems and Cybernetics (2). Retrieved from www.systemspedia.org/[full/url]
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