P. DENNING writes: "… the model is itself a system that has variables, parameters and loops. It is possible to offer a simple model for a complex domain, although we would be surprised if the model were reliable in this case" (1990, p.497).
Basically, the model would need to be isomorphic to the modeled system. However, as modeling implies Simplification, isomorphies eliminate too many characteristics, and we are left with homomorphies. But, at least, there should be a minimum of structural and dynamical correspondance between the system and its model.
In fact, as stated by K. KRIPPENDORFF, a model: "a) embodies a theory of that portion of reality which it claims to represent or b) corresponds to a portion of reality by virtue of an explicit homomorphism or isomorphism between the model's parameters and given data" (1986, p.50).
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Bertalanffy Center for the Study of Systems Science (2020). Title of the entry. In Charles François (Ed.), International Encyclopedia of Systems and Cybernetics (2). Retrieved from www.systemspedia.org/[full/url]
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