International Encyclopedia of Systems and Cybernetics

2nd Edition, as published by Charles François 2004 Presented by the Bertalanffy Center for the Study of Systems Science Vienna for public access.


The International Encyclopedia of Systems and Cybernetics was first edited and published by the system scientist Charles François in 1997. The online version that is provided here was based on the 2nd edition in 2004. It was uploaded and gifted to the center by ASC president Michael Lissack in 2019; the BCSSS purchased the rights for the re-publication of this volume in 200?. In 2018, the original editor expressed his wish to pass on the stewardship over the maintenance and further development of the encyclopedia to the Bertalanffy Center. In the future, the BCSSS seeks to further develop the encyclopedia by open collaboration within the systems sciences. Until the center has found and been able to implement an adequate technical solution for this, the static website is made accessible for the benefit of public scholarship and education.


MINDSCAPES (Epistemological, Meta-types) 3)4)

The concept of mindscapes has been shaped by M. MARUYAMA from 1979 on (1979, p.13-23).

According to MARUYAMA, individuals as well as cultures differ from each other by very variable psychological and mental orientations.

In connection with constructivist psychology, sociology and epistemology, and with the consensus problem, universally present in every domain, MARUYAMA's typology classifies some of the causes of the innumerable difficulties, misunderstandings, and conflicts which afflict humanity.

The four basic types described by MARUYAMA are as follows:

(1) H-type: homogeneistic, hierarchical, classificational.

(2) I-type: heterogeneistic, isolationistic, random.

(3) S-type: heterogeinistic, interactive, homeostatic.

(4) G-type: heterogeneistic, interactive, morphogenetic.

MARUYAMA gives numerous examples. According to him:

"Let us keep in mind there are other types, as well as mixtures of types… In any large society or culture, it is possible to find all four and many other types in individuals. The types are partly innate and partly learned. Different cultures and professions exercise different pressures for or against some types in the process of acculturation, socialization, ostracism, marginalization, etc. Individuals also exercise self-selection, internalization, sublimation, attrition, alienation, repression, identification, etc. It is possible for an individual to change his/her type, but there seems to be a critical age, after which it becomes very difficult to change types.

There are individual variations in the age limit as well as in the degree of difficulty. Some individuals become fixed in childhood. Others may be able to change much later in life.

"The mindscape theory may appear to be a typology. However, its purpose and use lie in interrelating seemingly separate aspects of human activities such as organizational structure, policy formulation, decision process, management method, architectural design, criteria of beauty, choice of theories, etc. It is relational rather than classificational" (Ibid).

MARUYAMA seems to view himself as belonging to the G-type. He uses his theory as an orientative guideline for non-autoritarian teaching, that should be "morphogenetic", i.e. open to creativity.

He applied it more recently to "Mindscapes in management" (1994), particularly considering the psychological and cultural problems of expatriate executive officers in multinational enterprises.


  • 1) General information
  • 2) Methodology or model
  • 3) Epistemology, ontology and semantics
  • 4) Human sciences
  • 5) Discipline oriented


Bertalanffy Center for the Study of Systems Science(2020).

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Bertalanffy Center for the Study of Systems Science (2020). Title of the entry. In Charles François (Ed.), International Encyclopedia of Systems and Cybernetics (2). Retrieved from www.systemspedia.org/[full/url]

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