A metaphor "that represents the organization as an open system seeking to adapt to the turbulent environment it is confronting" (M.C. JACKSON, 1992, p.219).
JACKSON comments: "The tendency to treat organizations as if they were organisms has been especially pronounced among advocates of the systems perspective in organization theory" (p.24).
This metaphor is of course interesting, but it does not clarify very much the individual roles, as they are or as they could be, nor the meaning of values and norms in organizations.
- 1) General information
- 2) Methodology or model
- 3) Epistemology, ontology and semantics
- 4) Human sciences
- 5) Discipline oriented
To cite this page, please use the following information:
Bertalanffy Center for the Study of Systems Science (2020). Title of the entry. In Charles François (Ed.), International Encyclopedia of Systems and Cybernetics (2). Retrieved from www.systemspedia.org/[full/url]
We thank the following partners for making the open access of this volume possible: