"A set of one or more signs intended by its producer to evoke a response either in another or in himself" (R.L. ACKOFF & F. EMERY, 1972, p.176).
"A scaled and integrated signal which has significance or meaning for either the transmitter in transmitted messages or the receiver in received messages" (Ibid, p.272).
Both definitions are very general, in a systemic sense: a message is anything that transmits information of any kind (positional, genetic' through gesture, iconic, verbal, symbolic,etc…).
J.de ROSNAY states: "A message is composed of Signals, signs or symbols assembled according to a code" and adds: "A set of messages and codes constitutes a language… The message emitted from a source is codified and next, transmitted through a channel…"
Moreover: "… perturbations interfering within the channel, which are called noise, may alter the messages and modify their significance" (1975, p.168-9).
Noise may even turn them incomprehensible. But in many cases, they can be recuperated by adequate filtering.
Messages can be compressed, by eliminating redundancy, but with an increased risk to their intelligibility due to perturbating noise (D. RUELLE, 1991, p. 175).
It is interesting to observe that, while a 100% redundant message carries no information at all, a 100% original message, would not be intelligible, save if it conveyed implicit connotations. Both types are very difficult to produce in practice.
For example, the totally imaginary and senseless word "facrupto" can at least be written in Latin alphabet, tentatively pronounced as an English, or French, or Spanish word… and may even in the future become a known example of 100% original non intelligible information!
- 1) General information
- 2) Methodology or model
- 3) Epistemology, ontology and semantics
- 4) Human sciences
- 5) Discipline oriented
To cite this page, please use the following information:
Bertalanffy Center for the Study of Systems Science (2020). Title of the entry. In Charles François (Ed.), International Encyclopedia of Systems and Cybernetics (2). Retrieved from www.systemspedia.org/[full/url]
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