D. KATZ and R.L. KAHN made the following comments (on human organizations, but of general interest for any strongly integrated system): "The typical models in organizational theorizing concentrate upon principles of internal functioning as if these problems were independent of changes in the environment…" (1966, p.100).
Such a limitation could also result of a too restrictive interpretation of the more recent concept of organizational closure.
The same authors add: "Moves toward tighter integration and coordination are made to insure stability, when flexibility may be the more important requirement. Moreover, coordination and control become ends in themselves rather than means to an end" (p.101).
These last comments are obviously relative to human organizations. It is however noteworthy that this tendency toward rigidity, here a result of a voluntarism unconscious of its own nature, can altogether be observed in biological ageing and in psychological disorders. It is possibly a result of variety exhaustion due to constraints increase resulting from continued readaptations to environmental variations and, more deeply to the unavoidable final entropization of any system.
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- 2) Methodology or model
- 3) Epistemology, ontology and semantics
- 4) Human sciences
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Bertalanffy Center for the Study of Systems Science (2020). Title of the entry. In Charles François (Ed.), International Encyclopedia of Systems and Cybernetics (2). Retrieved from www.systemspedia.org/[full/url]
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