## MATHEMATICAL SYSTEM
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"A set of objects, with associated rule or rules of combination" (R. CARMICHAEL, 1956, p.4).

CARMICHAEL, a mathematician without known relation with systemics wrote, in 1956: "… any set of mathematical objects, which admits either (one or more) rules of combination of elements or relations among elements may be said to form a mathematical system. Systems, as so defined, underlie nearly the whole of mathematical science" (Ibid).

During the last 40 years, numerous mathematical developments relative to complex multicausal, mostly nonlinear and dynamic interrelations have been introduced, creating new possibilities to modelize inter- and intrasystemic relations and complementing the traditional models. (See catastrophe, chaos, fractals, fuzzy sets, graphs, percolation, etc…).

### Categories

- 1) General information
- 2) Methodology or model
- 3) Epistemology, ontology and semantics
- 4) Human sciences
- 5) Discipline oriented

### Publisher

Bertalanffy Center for the Study of Systems Science(2020).

To cite this page, please use the following information:

* Bertalanffy Center for the Study of Systems Science (2020).* Title of the entry. In Charles François (Ed.), International Encyclopedia of Systems and Cybernetics (2). Retrieved from www.systemspedia.org/[full/url]

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