"That which behaves in the same way as does a closed single-valued transformation" (W.R. ASHBY, 1958, p.24).
ASHBY explains: " The series of positions taken by the system in time clearly corresponds to the series of elements generated by the successive powers of the transformation. Such a sequence of states defines a trajectory or line of behavior… Next, the fact that a determinate machine, from one state, cannot proceed to both of two different states corresponds, in the transformation, to the restriction that each transform is single-valued" (p.25).
Determinate machines are trivial in von FOERSTER's sense, i.e. their behavior is perfectly predictable.
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Bertalanffy Center for the Study of Systems Science (2020). Title of the entry. In Charles François (Ed.), International Encyclopedia of Systems and Cybernetics (2). Retrieved from www.systemspedia.org/[full/url]
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