HOLISTIC APPROACH 1)3)
"The view that an integrated whole has reality independent of and greater than its parts" (UNESCO, 1986, p.5).
"Independent" should be replaced by "distinct" in order to take BUNGE's objection into account.
The UNESCO – UNEP "Glossary of environmental education terms" comments that: "… the environment can only be understood by viewing it as a general complex of its parts" and that this can be done by way of a "thorough and comprehensive analysis of interrelations between the natural environment, social, cultural, technological and other factors" (p.5).
This applies obviously to any kind of environment, and must be extended to the system considered and its interactions with its specific environment. But it is in no way contradictory to more specific and precise research in some areas, provide both viewpoints become correlated.
- 1) General information
- 2) Methodology or model
- 3) Epistemology, ontology and semantics
- 4) Human sciences
- 5) Discipline oriented
To cite this page, please use the following information:
Bertalanffy Center for the Study of Systems Science (2020). Title of the entry. In Charles François (Ed.), International Encyclopedia of Systems and Cybernetics (2). Retrieved from www.systemspedia.org/[full/url]
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