HIERARCHIC SYSTEM 1)2)
"A system composed of subsystems that, in turn, have their own subsystems, and so on" (H. SIMON, 1958, p.64).
H. SIMON states: "By a hierarchic system, or hierarchy, I mean a system that is composed of interrelated subsystems, each of the latter being in turn hierarchic in structure until we reach some lowest level of elementary subsystems. In most systems in nature, it is somewhat arbitrary as to where we leave off, the partitioning and what subsystems we take as elementary" (Ibid).
SIMON notes how the physical concept of "elementary particle" has evolved within the two last generations. Other examples, biological or astronomical, show that an "elementary subsystem" is largely a matter of definition by the modeller.
He also stresses that the relations among subsystems are quite more complex that an univocal and common dependence from an upper level or rigid control over inferior levels.
Hierarchic systems are indeed made of co regulated subsystems and a meta-level's role is (or should be) more of regulation and cohesion than of domination.
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Bertalanffy Center for the Study of Systems Science (2020). Title of the entry. In Charles François (Ed.), International Encyclopedia of Systems and Cybernetics (2). Retrieved from www.systemspedia.org/[full/url]
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