CROWD PHYSICS 2)5)
The rules of spontaneous self-ordering of a great number of individual elements in movement within a confined space.
This curious systemic phenomenon can be observed in widely different settings, as for example in heavy traffic in truncal roads, or in crowded lobbies or staircases, or in fish schools (spatially confined to secure better protection againt predators).
It seems related to a general reciprocal collision avoidance behavior – combined with specific advantages of groupal dynamics for a better use of energy.
This type of behavior appears at very distinct levels of global organization.
In BENARD's instability and structuration by energy dissipation, it is a result of basic thermodynamic processes. The BELOUSOV ZHABOTINSKY catalytic reaction is an example in chemistry, also based on thermodynamics.
GRASSÉ's stigmergy shown in termites building their mounds seems to be another example, wherein reciprocal sensorial stimulation starts to be a predominant factor. The shaping of locusts swarms from individual insects under some specific environmental conditions leading to crowding in a reduced space, is also an example. Somehow, as stated by von FOERSTER order feeds on noise"(1960, p. 31-50)
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Bertalanffy Center for the Study of Systems Science (2020). Title of the entry. In Charles François (Ed.), International Encyclopedia of Systems and Cybernetics (2). Retrieved from www.systemspedia.org/[full/url]
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