N. TINBERGEN wrote already in 1965 in his "Social Behavior in Animals" that the result of cooperation of individuals is continually tested and checked and thus the group determines Ultimately, through its efficiency, the properties of the individual.
It is now well understood that cooperation is a special aspect of interaction within networks in a specific environment. Each individual or element is communicating with a number of other ones within the group or the species or, in case of men, the organizations in which it participates.
In many cases, but not all, it is also directly related to some specific part of the environment and serves as a transmitter of the environment reactions to its activity and, in some cases, to the activities of other members of the group. It (or she/he) may then, willingly or not, have to pay for some ill adjusted proper or groupal behavior.
- 1) General information
- 2) Methodology or model
- 3) Epistemology, ontology and semantics
- 4) Human sciences
- 5) Discipline oriented
To cite this page, please use the following information:
Bertalanffy Center for the Study of Systems Science (2020). Title of the entry. In Charles François (Ed.), International Encyclopedia of Systems and Cybernetics (2). Retrieved from www.systemspedia.org/[full/url]
We thank the following partners for making the open access of this volume possible: