"A natural or constructed assembly which interacts with its environment to bring about a particular stability called the "goal" or "objective" (G. PASK, 1960, p.49).
G. PASK explains: "Indeed, whenever there is a stable system, then, in principle, we can envisage a subsystem acting as the controller that maintains this stability" (Ibid).
Constructed controllers are generally based on quite simple feedbacks, but in natural systems a controller is frequently composed of a complex of countervailing feedbacks. In Markovian systems or in composite systems, no specific controller can be found: the control function, as well as the "goal" or "objective", is diffuse in the whole system and is a result of statistical interactions among the elements, within however global limiting conditions.
As to human controllers (or would-be controllers), they should never forget Sir Francis BACON warning: "Nature, to be commanded, must be obeyed".
This imply a correct understanding of natural feedbacks and regulations, previously to any intervention.
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To cite this page, please use the following information:
Bertalanffy Center for the Study of Systems Science (2020). Title of the entry. In Charles François (Ed.), International Encyclopedia of Systems and Cybernetics (2). Retrieved from www.systemspedia.org/[full/url]
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