W. POWERS states: "Living organisms don't produce repeatable actions. They produce repeatable results"(1995, p.3)
He adds: "The theory of control systems,… shows us how a relatively simple system can manage to produce reliable and repeatable results in an environment that has a large component of unpredictability – in other words, in the real world".
And "If you start with the idea that a behaving system controls outcomes or results rather than the actions that produce them, you can invent control theory from scratch. The first thing you realize is that this can't be done just by creating reproducible actions. The same action will have different results depending on what I going on in the environment. What you want is some basically simple way to produce a given result that doesn't depend on being able to predict exactly what action will be needed to produce it" (Ibid).
This is a very important comment, as it brings us back to the bedrock of cybernetics.
It also leads directly to HOLLAND's genetic adaptive plan through rules and to "artificial life" devices.
Finally, it is equivalent to VENDRYES' concept of living systems, able to control their own relationship with their environment, i.e. autonomy
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To cite this page, please use the following information:
Bertalanffy Center for the Study of Systems Science (2020). Title of the entry. In Charles François (Ed.), International Encyclopedia of Systems and Cybernetics (2). Retrieved from www.systemspedia.org/[full/url]
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