A great number of unreliable components can become organized in a reliable system through redundancy and variability of their interconnections.
This field of research was opened by J.von NEUMANN in his 1956 work on "Probabilistic logic and the synthesis of reliable organisms from unreliable components".
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To cite this page, please use the following information:
Bertalanffy Center for the Study of Systems Science (2020). Title of the entry. In Charles François (Ed.), International Encyclopedia of Systems and Cybernetics (2). Retrieved from www.systemspedia.org/[full/url]
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