G. BATESON states that rational, logical and verbal communicational modes are merely some particular modes of human communication. Examples of others are: "… play, non-play, fantasy, sacrament, metaphor, etc." (1973, p.174) He observes even among the lower mammals "exchange of signals which identify certain meaningful behaviors" (Ibid).
He could easily have added at least social insects and probably some non-vertebrate colonial animals like medusae, sponges, etc., if communicational modes are to be identified by the effect on some receiver(s) of signals, meaningful for them, emitted by some sender( s).
Should one admit that communication does not necessarily imply psychism, it could be even be rooted at quite more elemental levels: genetic, chemical or physical.
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Bertalanffy Center for the Study of Systems Science (2020). Title of the entry. In Charles François (Ed.), International Encyclopedia of Systems and Cybernetics (2). Retrieved from www.systemspedia.org/[full/url]
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