"The necessity for the collective statistical constraint to close back on the internal, detailed dynamics of the elements of the collection".
This principle has been introduced by H. PATTEE, who explains: "… hierarchical controls arise from a collection of elements, but act on individuals of the collection. The spontaneous appearance of collective constraints must therefore be a statistical property of the collection, but its control behavior must act on the dynamics of individual elements" (1973, p.95-6).
Collective constraints are the factors that institute social coherence, precisely because they are at the same time reciprocal and global. Ergodic phenomena appear in this way.
This already shows in fish schools (D. RITZ, 1991) and in locusts flights, but becomes stronger in anthills or beehives and, in many new ways, in human societies.
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Bertalanffy Center for the Study of Systems Science (2020). Title of the entry. In Charles François (Ed.), International Encyclopedia of Systems and Cybernetics (2). Retrieved from www.systemspedia.org/[full/url]
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