CHLADNI FIGURES 2)5)
Patterns obtained by spontaneous ordering of powder or sand on a metallic vibrating plate.
The powder gathers at the nodal lines and materializes the distribution of the energy induced on the plate by the source of vibrations. Many different patterns can be obtained according to the type of powder used.
A historical antecedent was DESCARTES' magnetic phantom. C. LAVILLE also mentions GUEBHARD experiences showing the possibility to materialize KIRCHOFF's diagrams of equipotential lines of forces in a field through electrolytic deposition. Many different figures can be obtained. It is surely not a coincidence if many of these diagrams show structures quite similar with natural forms in living systems (For example butterfly wings, bone structures, protozooaria, etc…), and also very fundamental processes as in the egg's progressive division in embryology. Structural engineering as for example in bridges materializes the same types of forms.
For many stimulating developments related to the close relations between energy flows, processes and structures, see d'ARCY W. THOMPSON (1916; 1952) and C. LAVILLE (1950).
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Bertalanffy Center for the Study of Systems Science (2020). Title of the entry. In Charles François (Ed.), International Encyclopedia of Systems and Cybernetics (2). Retrieved from www.systemspedia.org/[full/url]
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