A fundamental arithmetic that forms the ultimate basis of Boolean algebra. It has been introduced by G. SPENCER BROWN in his book "Laws of Form" (1969, 1979).
F. VARELA states: "By succeeding in going deeper than truth, to indication and the laws of its form, he has provided an account of the common ground in which both logic and the structure of any universe are cradled, thus providing a foundation for a genuine theory of general systems" (1975, p.6).
BROWN's calculus of indications starts from the ideas of indication and distinction as "… a necessary condition for an act of indication is the drawing of a distinction. The form (paradigm) of distinction is taken as the form (paradigm). All other forms (paradigms) are taken out of (follow from) the form" (R.A. ORCHARD – 1975, p.102).
"A state distinguished by the distinction is marked with the mark 1 and the state is called the marked state" (Ibid).
Arrangements (i.e. combinations) of marked and non-marked states and the use of a directional barb allow for the development of the whole of calculus of indications.
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Bertalanffy Center for the Study of Systems Science (2020). Title of the entry. In Charles François (Ed.), International Encyclopedia of Systems and Cybernetics (2). Retrieved from www.systemspedia.org/[full/url]
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