A complex system will adapt to a given environment "by providing second order feedbacks that veto all states of equilibrium, except those that leave each essential variable within its proper limits".
Furthermore:"The organism's reacting part is itself divided into subsystems between which there is no direct connection. Each subsystem is assumed to have its own essential variables and second order feedback". (ASHBY, 1960, pp.208-209)
This concept is obviously akin to:
1. - Vendryes' autonomy by internal regulations
2.- Maturana and Varela's organizational closure
3. - Eigen and Schuster's hypercycle
An important remark by ASHBY is that "The environment is assumed to be polystable" (Ibid). Of course, no adaptation would be possible in a totally incoherent environment.
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To cite this page, please use the following information:
Bertalanffy Center for the Study of Systems Science (2020). Title of the entry. In Charles François (Ed.), International Encyclopedia of Systems and Cybernetics (2). Retrieved from www.systemspedia.org/[full/url]
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