"A system event for the occurrence of which no change in the system's environment is either necessary or sufficient" (R.L. ACKOFF, 1972 a).
R.L. ACKOFF comments: "Acts, therefore, are self-determined events, autonomous changes. Internal changes – in the states of a system's elements – are both necessary and sufficient to bring about action. Much of the behavior of human beings is of this type, but such behavior is not restricted to humans. A computer, for example, may have its states changed or change the state of its environment because of its own program" (Ibid).
Systems able to 'act' in this sense are autonomous, i.e.:
- in P. VENDRYES' terms, able to determine their own behavior, up to a point;
- in H. MATURANA and F. VARELA's terms, endowed with organizational closure, i.e. able to maintain their identity and internal organization.
- 1) General information
- 2) Methodology or model
- 3) Epistemology, ontology and semantics
- 4) Human sciences
- 5) Discipline oriented
To cite this page, please use the following information:
Bertalanffy Center for the Study of Systems Science (2020). Title of the entry. In Charles François (Ed.), International Encyclopedia of Systems and Cybernetics (2). Retrieved from www.systemspedia.org/[full/url]
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