AUTOMATON (learning) 1)5)

A type of automaton made of several subroutines able to interact

An interesting example is R.A. Brooks's "Allen" robot, described as follows by M. Pesche (2000): "Allen does not "think"about the room it occupies: it makes no effort to build a model of the room it occupies: or to understand the shapes of the objects inside"(p. 29)

"Allen is thus not programmed, i.e. no precise prescriptive instructions guide its behavior. It does not respond to the general characteristics of so-called "Artificial intelligence". Pesche writes:" Allen is built with a tight connection between its sensors, which detect the presence of nearby objects, and its affectors, which move the machine…

"…Allen does not follow a routine sequence of programming steps to generate its moves. Several modular subroutines- such as drives to avoid moving objects and to explore uncharted territories run simultaneously and independently, which causes them to interact in unpredictable ways as they respond to the environment.

"Neither of these independent modules begin operating with any knowledge about their environment, nor about how their activity affects this environment. But as the modules execute, they compete to generate some aspect of Allen's overall response to its environment"(Ibid)

This is quite similar to Rumelhart and McClelland Parallel Distributed Processing and it leads to a bottom up construction of a globally coherent behavior.

Interestingly, Pesche observes the similarity of Allen's behavior- as an automaton- with learning in children as was investigated by Jean Piaget, who described children 's play as"…an advanced experiment in the ways the world works"(p. 30)

Both ways of learning lead to behavioral autopoiesis

1) general information

5) discipline oriented

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