The use in production and in control processes of machines having the capacity to adjust to changing conditions
"The adjustments require "sense receptors" (which take readings from the environment) communication networks, stored memory of standard states, correction devices, etc. All of these make for greater complexity, since the state of each device is an additional variable in the state of the system" (A. RAPOPORT, 1966)
Automated machines tend thus to become open systems, more autonomous and more similar to living systems.
They are normally integrated within still more complex systems.