A general model of dialectical antagonisms in biological and social systems.

This concept has been proposed by the French physician E. BERNARD-WEIL (1975). It is related to stresses in systems due to dissymetries and maladjustments. The author uses the bow and the string as a metaphor. He studies numerous examples of such antagonisms and proposes a mathematical formalism. He acknowledges the old sources of the concept, as can be found in ANAXIMANDER, HERACLITES and the Chinese concept of YING and YANG.

The connexion with symmetry-breaking is also obvious.

3) epistemology, ontology and semantics

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