According to G. BATESON: "Whatever the system, adaptive change depends upon feedback loops, be it provided by natural selection or those of individual reinforcement. In all cases, then, there must be a trial and error process and a mechanism of comparison. But trial and error must always involve error, and error is always biologically and/or psychically expensive. It follows therefore that adaptive change must always be hierarchic.

"There is needed not only that first-order change which suits the immediate environmental (or psychological) demand, but also second-order changes which will reduce the amount of trial and error needed to achieve the first-order change" (1973, p.245)

One wonders how this could be translated to cultural adaptive change. (A good case for research would be the shaping of the European Union)

1) general information

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