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ADAPTATION (Cumulative) 3)

W.R. ASHBY demonstrates that:"… for the accumulation of adaptations to be possible, the system must not be fully joined" (1960, p.155)

This is a very important statement. It explains the reason why adaptation is, in some way antagonistic to adaptability. The living system needs a high degree of basic adaptation, which is obtained by organizational closure (related to a specific kind of environment and genetically shaped), which in turn limits adaptability. A very restrictive organizational closure implies that the system is strongly joined, as for example in the case of immunological rejection.

It could be also inferred that a high degree of artificial intelligence could be attained only by loosely joined systems of many elements and subsystems, which seems also to be the way the brain is organized.

3) epistemology, ontology and semantics

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