ACT of a system 1)

"A system event for the occurrence of which no change in the system's environment is either necessary or sufficient" (R.L. ACKOFF, 1972 a).

R.L. ACKOFF comments: "Acts, therefore, are self-determined events, autonomous changes. Internal changes – in the states of a system's elements – are both necessary and sufficient to bring about action. Much of the behavior of human beings is of this type, but such behavior is not restricted to humans. A computer, for example, may have its states changed or change the state of its environment because of its own program" (Ibid).

Systems able to 'act' in this sense are autonomous, i.e.:

- in P. VENDRYES' terms, able to determine their own behavior, up to a point;

- in H. MATURANA and F. VARELA's terms, endowed with organizational closure, i.e. able to maintain their identity and internal organization.

1) general information

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